Bruce Conner (November 18, 1933, McPherson, Kansas – July 7, 2008) was an American artist renowned for his work in film, assemblage, drawing, sculpture, painting, collage, photography, and conceptual pranks. Initially known for his assemblage, Conner turned to film with A movie in 1958, and other media soon after, with a freewheeling curiosity and resistance to pigeonholing that would last throughout his lifetime. His contributions to cinema stand among his greatest achievements. Many attribute the birth of the music video to his 1961 film Cosmic Ray as well as his more direct forays into the form in America is waiting (for David Byrne and Brian Eno) and Mea culpa (with Devo). A movie has achieved canonicity, and is today taught in introductory film history courses across the world. Key exhibitions include the seminal 2000 BC: The Bruce Conner Story Part II retrospective at the Walker Art Center, which was expanded upon in the highly lauded Bruce Conner: It's All True, organized by the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art (SFMOMA). The survey opened at the Museum of Modern Art, New York, in July 2016 and traveled to SFMOMA and the Museo Reina Sofia, Madrid. Conner is today recognized as one of the most important American artists of the 20th century.